Happy Days Are Here, Um, Next Monday?

It is not a little known fact that historically the action of the stock market has been relatively favorable both around holidays and towards the end of the year.  But some question remains as to just how favorable things have been during these periods and how often.  So let’s address it.

The Year-End (or “Santa Claus”) Rally

Different analysts will look at historical data and draw different conclusions.  This is actually a good thing, otherwise everyone would be trying to buy or sell at the same time.

But in the opinion one analyst (“Hi, my name is Jay”) the “year-end rally” period (or as I like to call it the “Santa Claus Rally”):

*Starts on the Monday before Thanksgiving

*Ends at the close of the third trading day of the following January

Have I mentioned lately that this stuff doesn’t need to be rocket science?

So how has this period performed?  We will start our test at the close of trading on Saturday (yes, Saturday) November 19, 1949 and examine what would have happened to a hypothetical $1,000 investment in the Dow Jones Industrials Average that was in the market only during the bullish year-end period described above (in other words, the trader would buy the Dow Industrials Average at the close on the last trading day prior to the Monday before Thanksgiving and would hold through the close of the third trading day of the following January.  The rest of the time the “system” is out of the market.  For our purposes, no interest is earned so as to reflect only the gains made during the bullish year-end period).

The results appear in chart form in Figure 1.santa rallyFigure 1 – Growth of $1,000 invested in the Dow Industrial Average only during the bullish year-end period described in text

Figure 2 displays the annual year-by-year results in table form.

Exit Date

% +(-)



































































































































Figure 2 – Year-by-Year “Santa Claus Rally” % +(-)

A few performance notes:

# times UP = 54 (83% of the time)

# times DOWN = 11 (17% of the time)

Average% +(-) = +3.19%

Median % +(-) = +3.08%

Largest % Gain = +13.87% (1991-92)

Largest % Loss = (-3.69%) (1977-78)

It is also worth noting that the year-end rally period has witnessed a gain for the Dow in 27 of the last 29 years and 33 of the last 36 years.


So do the results displayed in Figures 1 and 2 guarantee that the stock market is destined to rally in the near future?  Ah there’s the rub.  For the answer is “not necessarily”.  Still, investing is in many ways a game of odds and probabilities.  While one always needs to be prepared to act defensively if things start to go south, history suggests that traders and investors might do well to give the bullish case the benefit of the doubt between Thanksgiving Week and early January 2015.

Or to put it more succinctly:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #215: Santa Claus is real (approximately 83% of the time).

Jay Kaeppel

Darknet Channels Strikes Again

In the May 2014 issue of “Technical Analysis of Stock, Commodities & Forex” magazine, I co-authored an article with John Broussard, a former colleague of mine.  John is the purveyor of www.OptionsAnalysis.com and developer of the Darknet Channels trading method.

Now when I say that we “co-authored” the article, in this case that breaks down sort of like this:

John: Researched, tested, designed, developed, programmed, refined, launched and maintains the Darknet Channels system.

Jay: Ran spell check and grammar check.

In addition, Jay also wonders why – even though John thoroughly explained the calculations and methodology behind Darknet Channels – he still doesn’t full understand exactly how they work.  Alas, some questions are best left unanswered.  But hey, at least the spelling and grammar look good.

Darknet Channels: The Broad Stroke

In a nutshell, Darknet Channels involves calculations that draw three sets of price channels which we will refer to as long, intermediate and short-term channels.  When all three sets of channels are pointing lower and long short-term and intermediate-term channels are contained within the longer-term channels, then the stage is set for a buy signal (a reversal in price is required first in order to avoid attempting to “catch a failing safe”).

Once a buy signal occurs then the system looks for the opposite configuration – i.e., all three channels are pointing higher and the short and intermediate-term channels are contained within the longer-term channels.  Then the stage is set for a sell signal.  Once again, reversal in price of some degree is required to trigger the actual signal. 

Figure 1 displays some recent example signals for ticker SPY.spy darknetFigure 1 – Darknet Signals for SPY

Trading with Darknet Channels

www.OptionsAnalysis.com generates Darknet Signals for a large number of stocks.  Also, the software generates signals on Stocks, Call Options and Put Credit Spreads.  It likewise has its own built in methodology for selecting specific options to trade. 

Not being one to leave well enough alone (Sorry, its jut my nature), I have my own list of tickers that I follow and my own method for selecting call options to consider based on the trading signals that the software generates.

My “short list” of tickers includes:


Also the method I use for selecting options for consideration uses the following inputs in the % to Double routine built into www.OptionsAnalysis.com:darknet input 

Figure 2 – Jay’s Option Selection Inputs

The primary things to note among the inputs are:

*At least 45 days until expiration

*Volume and Open Interest of at least 1 (i.e., ignore call options that never trade)

*Use the “Natural” price (i.e., the ask price) for evaluation purposes (this give you an idea of what price you might get if you placed a market order)

I make no claim that these are the “best” selection criteria to use.  They are based on certain personal preferences (I would rather buy a slightly longer term option than to have to “roll out”, I don’t like to look at options that never trade and I like to consider my “worst case, what price do I buy at if I place a market order” scenario, rather than assuming that I can get filled at the midpoint of the bid/ask spread).  That being said, traders may often be better off buying with a limit order than a market order.  

In sum a trader can follow the trades suggested by the software, use the criteria I have listed above, or device some other variation – for example, some traders might consider deep-in-the-money call options as a “stock replacement” strategy.

Some Recent Results

The results displayed in Figure 3 are hypothetical and represent just one recent set of results from using Darknet Channels buy signals and the option selection criteria shown above.  It is assumed that $2,500 is dedicated to each trade.darknet hypothetical results Figure 3 – Hypothetical Results of Recent Darknet Channels signals

The results in Figure 3 do not include any deductions for slippage or commissions, so net returns would be less than they appear in this table.  Still, the gist is that investing up to $2,500 into each of these 8 positions – at a cost of around $20,000 – would have generated close to a doubling of capital before slippage and commissions.


No trader should look at any set of hypothetical results and come away with stars in their eyes.  The market had a great rally off of the October low so good gains were obviously there for the taking for call buyers.  But the real point of this piece is not so much to “sell” you on Darknet Channels as it is to make you “aware” that a mechanical and back tested model is available that can generate these types of returns under the right circumstances. 

For more information visit www.OptionsAnalysis.com.

Jay Kaeppel

Actually Doing Something with The 40-Week Cycle

Last time out I revisited the 40-Week Cycle in the stock market.  Or as I sometimes refer to it, the “Wow this sounded like a really stupid idea when I first read about it, I don’t remember where, 30 some odd years ago, but darned if it hasn’t held up reasonably well Cycle” (so you see why I typically just go with the shorter version).

In the last piece I spelled out the “numbers” and I pointed out the fact that the “bullish phase” is most certainly not always bullish and that the “bearish phase” sees the stock market advance more often than it sees it decline.  But over the long-term the difference in results has been rather stark (with “stark” being defined in this case as a gain of +3,538% during the bullish phases – assuming the 12.5% stop-loss was respected – versus a loss of -31% during the bearish phases. 

I also stated quite clearly that “No one should rely on the 40-week cycle as their sole method of market analysis.”  Which is all perfectly logical.  But it does raise a rather pesky question of “So what the heck do I actually do with this thing, anyway?”  The short answer is “combine it with something else.”  Let me give you an example.

A Model Incorporating the 40-Week Cycle

So let’s build a simple (with “simple” in this case being defined as “Jay thinks its simple”) model that incorporates the 40-Week Cycle as a factor.  In addition to that cycle we will also incorporate the “Best Six Months” pattern and the 50-day/200-day moving averages for the Dow Industrials.  So heretofore I will refer to this as the “296 Model” (40 + 6 + 50 + 200).

296 Model Tool #1 – The 40-Week Cycle:

As defined last week, every 280 calendar days (the latest period started at the close on 10/31/2014) the stock market enters a “bullish phase” that lasts for 140 calendar days or until the Dow drops 12.5% from its price at the start of the current bullish phase.  The rest of the time this Tool is in cash.

296 Model Tool #2 – The Best 6 Months:

This well known phenomenon from Yale Hirsch and Stock Trader’s Almanac fame turns bullish at the close on the last trading day of October and turns bearish at the close of the last trading day of the following April.

The 296 Model – Tool #3: The 50-day versus 200-day Moving Averages:

This tool turns bullish when the 50-day moving average for the Dow Industrials rises above the 200-day moving average.  It stays bullish until the 50-day moving average drops back below the 200-day moving average.  And so on and so forth.

296 Model Scoring:

When a “Tool” is “bullish” it adds 1 point to the model

When a “Tool” is “bearish” its adds 0 point to the model

So the score for any given day can range anywhere from 0 to +3.  Intuitively, we would expect better market results when the readings are higher than when they are lower.  And in this (rare, at least when it comes the stock market) case, intuition proves to be fairly spot on.

The 296 Model Results

We start our test on 12/31/1967.  We will refer to readings of 0 or +1 as “bearish” for reasons that become more apparent with a perusal of Figure 1.  Figure 1 displays the growth (or perhaps I should say “lack thereof”) of $1,000 invested in the Dow Jones Industrials Average only on those days when the 296 Model registers a reading of 0 or +1.  40-6-50-200 BearFigure 1 – Growth of $1,000 invested in the Dow Industrials only when The 296 Model is at 0 or +1 (12/31/67-present)

As with the 40-week cycle bearish phase chart last week, a close look at Figure 1 reveals that there are plenty of times when stock market advanced along the way.  So just because we refer to these readings as “bearish” no one should assume that the stock market is automatically guaranteed to decline.  Still, what is significant is that all told, since the end of 1967 this $1,000 would have declined in value to $349 (or -65.1%).  Which is not exactly the kind of long-term growth most investors are looking for. 

Figure 2 displays the growth of $1,000 invested in the Dow Jones Industrials Average only on those days when the model registers a reading of +2 or +3.  Also, 1% of interest per year is added when out of the stock market.

40-6-50-200 Bull Figure 2 – Growth of $1,000 invested in the Dow Industrials only when The 296 Model is at +2 or +3 (12/31/67-present)

A simple visual observation suggests that the results depicted in Figure 2 are “better” than those that appear in Figure 1.  In fact, $1,000 invested in the Dow only when the 296 Model stands at +2 or +3 (with 1% annual interest while in cash) grew to $67,012 (or +6,601%).

So a quick review:

*296 Model Bullish % +(-) = +6,601%

*296 Model Bearish % +(-) = (-65%)

These are the kinds of numbers that we “quantitative types” refer to as “statistically significant.”

Also, the maximum peak-to-valley drawdown for the 296 Model was -29% versus -54% for buy and hold. 

The 296 Model turned bullish at the close on 10/31/14 when both the 40-week cycle and the Best 6 Months turned bullish raising the model reading from +1 (the 50-200 moving average was already bullish) to +3.  The model will remain above +1 at least until 3/20/2015 (when the 40-week cycle returns to “bearish”).  As we will see in a moment, this may or may not prove significant.

A Closer Look at the Results

Now if I were smart I would write my typical snarky Summary and hit “Publish.”  But alas, well, never mind.  In any event, in this case I feel compelled to go the extra step and point out the critical difference between:

A) “Building a model” (which is the easy part) and;

B) “Actually trading using said model” (which is the hard part).

Which reminds me of:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #132: Between theory and reality there can be a chasm a mile wide.  So look for a sturdy bridge when attempting to cross from one to the other.

On the surface the numbers for the 296 Model look pretty darn good.  But the reality is that a lot of imperfections can get glossed over during the course of 37 years (come to think of it, a lot of hair can disappear also.  But I digress).  So before anyone gets the bright idea that they should adopt the 296 model right away, at least consider the following “bad news”:

1) In a nutshell, the Model’s average annual gain was +10.4%, versus +7.8% for Buy/Hold (this includes no dividends in the calculation, so the total return for both the Model and buy and hold would be several percentage points higher).  Not bad, but not exactly eye-popping either.

2) The Model did show a gain in 38 of 47 years versus 34 up years for buy and hold.  But the bad news is that the Model actually underperformed buy and hold 26 out of 47 years. 

This last piece of info is a little shocking and highlights the real fact behind how the Model outperforms buy and hold over time: It simply “doesn’t get clobbered” as often or to the same extent as buy and hold during bear markets.

So the good news is that when the market gets whacked, the 296 Model trader may well be sitting in cash and missing out on all of the “angst.”  On the other hand, during a rip roaring bull market the Model trader will also find him or herself occasionally sitting on the sidelines as prices soar.  This can be a very frustrating state of affairs.

In reality, a lot of traders and investors subconsciously adopt the “That Championship Season” mentality when it comes to trading.  In other words, if we didn’t beat the market this year then we didn’t “win the championship” regardless of the long-term affect.  For example, let’s say over a two year period that during Year One the Model made 14% and buy and hold made 20%. The next year the Model makes 1% while buy and hold loses 20%.

After two years the Model investor will see $1,000 grow to $1,151, whereas a buy and hold investor would have only $960.  Still, human nature being what it is, the average Model trader will look at the Model as being 50/50 against the market, i.e., one year it beat the market, the next year it did not.  All in all this highlights the never-ending need for discipline in following any trading method or model.

To put a fine point on all of this consider these two slightly incongruous facts:

1) Since the end of 1990, the 296 Model has underperformed buy and hold during 16 of those 24 calendar years (including 2014 to date).  Let’s face it, the average trader would likely find this a little hard to take.

2) On the other side of the coin, despite this fairly brutal year-by-year comparison, since the end of 1990, $1,000 invested in the Dow using the 296 Model grew to $10,023 versus $6,601 using a buy and hold approach. 

How is this possible?  As mentioned above, and as seen in Figure 3, the Model “doesn’t get clobbered” as often as buy and hold.40-6-50-200 Model 1990+ Figure 3 – Growth of $1,000 for 296 Model (red line) versus Buy and Hold (blue line) from 12/31/1989 to present

So despite the fact that the 296 Model did not have many “Championship Seasons”, it still managed to gain 1.6 times as much as buy and hold (+902% versus +560%).  Go figure. [I am getting a little tired so please insert your own “Tortoise vs. Hare” type analogy here].


When it comes to trading coming up with “interesting ideas” is relatively easy.  In fact, coming up with models that outperform a buy and hold approach is not as hard as many people assume. 

Unfortunately, actually using those “interesting ideas” and models to trade can sometimes prove a great deal more difficult.  By virtue of human nature we want to make money, we want to make money right freaking now, and we want to consistently make more money in the future.  And if we are underperforming the overall market for any length of time then “something is wrong” and we will more than likely feel compelled to “do something” – which more often than not will ultimately work against us, Murphy’s Law being what it is and all (Wow, is human nature a pain in the rear or what?).

The 296 Model I’ve detailed here is a perfectly good case in point.  Three useful tools – each with a good standalone track record – combined into one “weight of the evidence” model which generates results that are inarguably superior to buy and hold.  Sound great, right?

But unless you understand how it manages to achieve that outperformance (by missing some of the big “downs” – but alas, also some big “ups”) and unless you have the psychological wherewithal to withstand “underperforming the market” over the course of several years and still “stay the course”, achieving those really great long-term results may be problematic.

Which leads me to conclude with:

Jay’s Trading Maxim#2: There are two keys to trading success; the first is to develop a well-though out method that has a realistic probability of generating profits in real-time trading (i.e., you must have a plan). 

Jay’s Trading Maxim #3: The second key to trading success is that you must have the emotional and financial wherewithal to follow your plan.

(Ironic) Hint: While #2 can involve a lot of work and effort, for most people #3 is way harder than #2. 

Jay Kaeppel

The 40-Week Cycle Revisited

As I mentioned last time around, when it comes to analyzing the financial markets, I am a proud graduate of “The School of Whatever Works”.  In my youth I “wrote down” a lot of interesting analysis ideas (that’s how we did it back then, sadly).  Whenever I would hear or read of a new market analysis or market timing idea, rather than passing judgment one way or the other based solely on my own “youthful wisdom” (har, good one), I would agnostically write it down and “track it for awhile”.  OK, “quantitative” is  not a word that most “youths” get around to using until, well, whatever it is that comes after youth (which I believe most people refer to as “Mid-20’s and broke”, or alternatively, “Our parents have stopped feeding us, now what?”  But I digress).

At lunch time I would take a break from my job in “Personnel” (which coincidentally is where I came to realize that I “hate people” and that I was going to have to do something that involved numbers instead) and go to the local library and peruse the available market newsletters, advisory services, etc.  Anyway, I had quite the appetite for “market analysis” so I “wrote down” a lot of “stuff.” 

Long story short, if I had a $1 for every idea/method I wrote down that did not stand the test of time, well, let’s just say I wouldn’t need to worry about analyzing the financial markets anymore.  But I guess that shouldn’t really come as a surprise.  What surprises me more is some of the ideas that I would likely have considered “arcane” (had I actually used that word in my youth) that actually did end up standing the test of time (at least so far).  One of those is something I refer to as the “40-week cycle.“ 

Now I am certain that I personally did not “invent” the 40-week cycle.  I must have read about it somewhere (OK, original thinking isn’t my strong suit, is that a crime?),written it down and followed it.  But sadly, I don’t remember exactly when or where or from whom I first got the idea.  But whoever you are, if by some strange twist of fate you are reading this article, let me just say “Thanks.”

The 40-Week Cycle   

For the record there is the “Raw theory 40-week cycle” and the “Raw theory 40-week cycle with a stop-loss provision added because you know how that pesky stock market loves to crater even the best theories every once in a while” version (which I considered as the title for my next book but my editor emphatically said “No!” Guess the price of ink must be up these days).

The Rules are pretty simple:

*Starting at the close on 4/21/1967, the first 140 calendar days (20 weeks times 7 days) is considered the “Bullish Phase”

*The second 140 calendar days is considered the “Bearish Phase”

*During the Bullish Phase, if the Dow Jones Industrials Average losses 12.5% or more from its closing level at the end of the previous “Bearish Phase”, sell and remain in cash until the start of the next Bullish Phase.

Figure 1 displays this cycle going back a few years.40 week hubb Figure 1 – Dow Industrials with 40-Week Cycle dates (Courtesy: ProfitSource by HUBB)

There are three critical things to know about the raw 40-week cycle:

1) The stock market DOES NOT always go UP during each bullish phase.

2) The stock market DOES NOT always go DOWN during each bearish phase (in fact, for the record, the “Bearish Phase” has seen the Dow advance more often than it declined.  But when it does decline, it “really declines” – see Figure 3 below).

3) No one should rely on the 40-week cycle as their sole method of market analysis (even at the peak of “Youthful Wisdom”)

With those caveats in mind, let’s look at why it still may be useful to keep an eye on this cycle as a “weight of the evidence” tool.

The Results

For measuring results during the “bullish” phase:

Buy the Dow at the close on the last day of the previous Bearish cycle.

Sell if either:

a) The Dow declines 12.5% or more on a closing basis from the buy price, or;

b) 140 calendar days go by if a) is not triggered

For our purposes, we will assume that interest is earned at a rate of 1% per year while out of the stock market.  Starting on 4/21/67, $1,000 invested using the rules above would be worth $36,483 as of 10/31/14, as shown in Figure 2.40wk v bhFigure 2 – Growth of $1,000 using 40-Week Bullish Phase Rules (blue line) versus Buy and Hold (red line)

On the flip side, had an investor skipped all of the “bullish” days and invested only during the “bearish” days (including after the 12.5% stop was hit), he or she would have done, ahem, worse.  The growth of $1,000 invested only during the “non bullish” days appears in Figure 3.40wk bearFigure 3 – Growth of $1,000 invested only during “Non Bullish” 40-Week Bullish days

To be succinct:

*$1,000 invested only during the “Bullish” days grew to $36,483 (+3,548%)

*$1,000 invested only during the “Non Bullish” days shrank to $688 (-31%)


The latest bullish phase started at the close of trading on 10/31/2014 (and extends through 3/20/15).  This nicely coincides with the “Bullish Six Months” period originally espoused by Yale Hirsch which (according to my own rules) extends from the close of trading on October 31st each year through the third trading day of the following May.  So does this combination of bullish seasonal factors guarantee us that “Happy Day are Here Again?” 

Sadly, no.  Murphy and his d$%^ Law stand ever vigilant against complacent investors. But if history is a guide (and “sometimes” it is) we might continue to give the bullish case the benefit of the doubt.

Well, at least for another 139 days.

Jay Kaeppel

Is Gold “Waving” Goodbye?

Typically, I don’t like to rain on other people’s parades – you know, karma being what it is and all.  And when it comes to analyzing the financial markets and trading, I am a proud graduate of “The School of Whatever Works.”  So if someone tells me that the key to their success comes from analyzing the ratio between the VIX Index and the price of arugula, I say “more power to ‘em.”  (OK, this is a made up example.  Please DO NOT email me and ask me if I have back data for the price of arugula.  I do not.  At least not that I am aware of.  Maybe I do.  I should look. Wait, no!).

So anyway, what follows is not meant to denigrate anybody else’s analysis.  But one thing that has always bugged me is when people arbitrarily draw all kinds of things on a price bar chart and then say “Aha!” One notorious example is a guy I used to know who was a big believer in Gann and Fibonacci (not that there is anything wrong with that).  So if we were to talk (assuming we were still talking) about the gold market he might send me a chart that sort of resembles the one that appears in Figure 1.  This is a weekly bar chart for ticker GLD – an ETF that tracks the price of gold bullion – with a Gann fan and Fibonacci Retracement lines drawn. gld w gann and fibFigure 1 – Ticker GLD with a Gann Fan and Fibonacci Retracements (Courtesy: ProfitSource by HUBB)

As you can see in Figure 1 there is in fact a point where the 61.8% “Fib line” (as we “professional market analysts” like to refer to them) will intersect with the, well, one of the Gann Fan lines.  Is this actually significant in any way?  [Insert your answer here].  But I would likely respond to him by saying something constructive like, “Interesting analysis.  Hey what about the other 50 lines you’ve drawn on this chart?”  To which he would likely respond by saying something equally constructive like “$%^ you.” (You kind of get the idea why we don’t talk much anymore). 

For the record please note that at no time did I denigrate his analysis (well, maybe in a sneaky, snarky sort of way – sorry, it’s just my nature).  But if it works for him, that’s great.  But seriously, what about the other 50 lines?  And please remember that for the sake of clarity I did not include the 4 to 6 “key” moving averages that he would normally include on a typical bar chart.  Anyway, in the end it seems like an appropriate time to invoke:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #102: If you draw enough lines on a bar chart, price will eventually touch one.  This may or may not signify diddly squat.

or the addendum:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #102a: The market may not care that you’ve drawn a particular line on a particular chart.  Just saying.

So with this in mind, let’s turn to the price of gold and Elliott Wave Analysis.

Gold and the Elliott Wave

I always feel compelled to point out that I am not now, nor have I ever been a true “Elliotthead.”  But I know enough traders whom I respect who are serious users of Elliott Wave analysis that I do try to pay attention.  So let’s take a look at a recent example, in this case using the ticker GLD.

The biggest problem I always had with Elliott Wave is figure out when one wave is – um, waving goodbye and another wave is about to crest.  So I rely on ProfitSouce from HUBB to do the work for me.  In Figure 2 you see a bar chart for ticker GLD with ProfitSource’s version of the latest Elliott Wave count drawn.  As you can see in Figure 2, the indicated wave count just crossed down into a bearish Wave 5 (although most of the people I know who follow Elliott Wave refer to this as a “Wave 4 Sell”.  Go figure).gld ewFigure 2 – GLD and Elliott Wave w/Wave 4 Sell signal (Courtesy: ProfitSource by HUBB)

So let’s assume that a person wanted to play the short sort of gold based on this one signal (for now we will ignore the question of whether or not this is wise).  One avenue would be to sell short 100 shares of GLD at $119.34.  This transaction would involve putting up margin money of roughly $6,000 and assuming unlimited risk to the upside (Remember that if you sell short shares of GLD and gold decides for some reason to open $20 higher tomorrow your stop-loss to buy back your short GLD shares at $125 is not necessarily going to limit your risk).

My preferred play would be to use put options on ticker GLD.  Of course, with options there is always “more than one way to play.”  So let’s look at two.

Strategy #1: The “I Want to be Short Gold” Strategy (Buy a Deep-in-the-Money Put)

The objective with this strategy is to get as close to point-for-point movement with the underlying security (i.e., shares of GLD) as possible, at a fraction of the cost.  In this example, the trade in Figures 3 and 4 involves buying the December 127 put at $8.40. gld put1Figure 3 – Buying Deep-in-the-money GLD Put (Source: www.OptionsAnalysis.com)gld put2 Figure 4 – Buying Deep-in-the-money GLD Put (Source: www.OptionsAnalysis.com)

This trade costs $840 – which represents the maximum risk on the trade and has a delta of -79.77.  This means that this trade will act roughly the same as if you had sold short 80 shares of ticker GLD (which would entail putting up margin money of roughly $4,800 and the assumption of unlimited risk. 

If GLD falls to the upper price target range indicated in Figure 2 (112.20) this trade will generate a profit of roughly $700.  As this is written, GLD has fallen from    119.34 to 115.76 a share and the December 127 put is up from $8.40 to $11.40 (+36%).

Strategy #2: The “I’m Willing to Risk a Couple of Bucks in Case the Bottom Drops Out of Gold” Strategy (buy an OTM Put Butterfly)

This strategy is for people who are willing to speculate and risk a few dollars here in there in hopes of a big payoff.  Now that phraseology probably turns a few people off, but risking a few bucks in hopes of a big payoff is essentially the definition of intelligent speculation.  

So for this I turn to www.OptionsAnalysis.com which helpfully has an OTM Butterfly Finder routine built in.

This trade involves:

Buying 1 December 118 put

Selling 2 December 108 puts

Buying 1 December 98 put

The cost of this trade is only $170. gld put 3Figure 5 – Buying OTM Butterfly spread in GLD (Source: www.OptionsAnalysis.com)

gld xFigure 6 – Buying OTM Butterfly spread in GLD (Source: www.OptionsAnalysis.com)

As you can see, if GLD does fall into the price range projected by the Elliott Wave count shown in Figure 2, this trade can make anywhere from $250 to $700 or more based on $170 of risk.

As I write, GLD is trading at $115.76 and this open position shows a profit of $94 (+55%).


There sure are a lot of ways to analyze and play the financial markets.  As a proud graduate of “The School of Whatever Works” (our school motto is “Whatever!”) I am not here to tell you what tools you should use (nor how many lines you should draw on a bar chart) or what type of trading strategies you should use to act on any particular trading strategies.  My only purpose in this blog is to provide food for thought.

Whether or not a single particular Elliott Wave count constitutes a valid trading signal is up to each trader to decide.  But whatever the indicator, once a signal to play the short side is given, more choices arise.  In this example, three choices are to:

1) Sell short shares of GLD (putting up margin money and assuming significant risk),

2) Buy an in-the-money put option to track the price of GLD without as much cost and with limited risk

3) Risk less than $200 to gain exposure to the downside in GLD

Food for thought.  Feel free to “chew on that” for awhile.

Jay Kaeppel

It Doesn’t Have to be Rocket Science (Part 312)

Seems like I have used this title before.  That’s probably because I have.  It’s also because every once in awhile I lift my head up from “crunching numbers” – in pursuit of that “one great market timing method” – and remember that there really is no such thing and that having a general sense of the overall trend of the markets and adding a touch of common sense can get you pretty far as an investor and trader.

Of course, that’s been easier said than done of late.  At times its seems that common sense would dictate doning a Hazmat suit and curling up in the fetal position in a corner until – you know, whatever – passes.  With an election coming up we have been informed by both sides that if the other side wins then that will pretty much be the end of humanity as we know it.  Which leaves us exactly where?  But I need to watch my blood pressure so I will steer clear of politics.

My Writing (or Lack Thereof) of Late

I have been writing very little of late.  The good news for me is that JayOnTheMarkets.com is not a paid site and there are no deadlines and no one is waiting for me to tell them what to do next in the markets.  Which is probably a good thing since the truth is that I have never been more unsure of exactly what the h?$% is going on in the markets (or the world around us, come to think of it) than I have been of late.   Hence the lack of more frequent updates.  As the saying goes, “If you don’t have something intelligent to say, don’t…” – well come to think of it I have never really adhered to that rule in the past.  Never to late to start, I guess.  In any event, thank goodness I am a systematic trader.

In trying to make sense of things, on one hand a perusal of the evidence in recent months led me to think that a major top was forming.  On the other hand, the trend (except for a recent short-lived dip by some of the major averages below their 200-day moving averages) has remained “up” and we are now in what has historically been a very bullish seasonal period (also the standard most bullish 6 months of the year starts on November 1st).  

So the bottom line is that if you want to be bullish you can make a pretty good case.  On the other hand, if you want to be bearish you can also make a pretty good case. 

What’s a guy or gal to do? 

Well hopefully your answer is the same as mine: Continue to follow your objective, well thought out trading plan – one that incorporates some risk controls in case things don’t go the way you planned. 

Sounds so simply when its put that way, doesn’t it?  Towards that end, let me offer a simple “Non Rocket Science” method for identifying the long-term trend of the stock market.

Jay’s Non-Rocket Science Stock Market Trend Identification Method (JTIM)

Notice that this ridiculously long title (hence JTIM for short) includes the phrase “Trend Identification” and not the phrase “Market Timing”.  If I were truly interested in full disclosure the title would actually be something like “Jay’s Non-Rocket Science Let’s Not Ride the Bear Market All the Way to the Bottom for Crying Out Loud” Method.  But that one was really long winded. 

The purpose of this method is simply this, nothing more, nothing less: to avoid riding an extended bear market all the way to the bottom all the while hoping that one day it will bounce back.  When this method gives a sell signal it simply means that it “may be” time to play defense.  That might mean selling a few stock market related holdings, that might mean selling everything related to the stock market, or it might mean hedging and existing portfolio.

It also means that there is a chance that you may take defensive action and later end up wishing that you had not.  Sorry folks, that just kind of the nature of trend following.  But one thing I have learned since, well, the time I had a lot of hair until now, is that selling now and buying back in at a slightly higher price is typically preferable to riding a 20%, 30% or 40% or more drawdown.

Now some people may respectfully disagree with that opinion.  But these types of drawdowns can scar an investor’s psyche – and adversely affect their judgement in the future – for  a long time – even after their portfolio eventually bounces back.  In addition, riding a massive drawdown like DiCaprio and Winslet riding the final plunge of the Titanic opens an investor to one of the most devastating mistakes of all – i.e., selling at or near the bottom (Though fortunately not to hypothermia like DiCaprio – and just for the record, seriously, couldn’t Winslet have just schooched over a little bit and made enough room for both on that door or whatever it was she was floating on? But I digress).

This reminds me to remind you of:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #78: Drawdowns make people act stupid (the more the drawdown, the more the stupid).

So here are the (granted, imperfect) JTIM rules:

*If the S&P 500 Index closes for two consecutive months below its 21-month moving average AND also closes below its 10-month moving average, the trend is deemed “Bearish”.

*While the trend is deemed “Bearish”, if the SPX 500 Index closes one month above its 10-month moving average then the trend is deemed “Bullish.”

That’s it.

JTIM Results

The results must be measured based on what the method is trying to achieve – i.e., avoiding massive, long term drawdowns – so as to avoid “acting stupid” (and to avoid ending up like DiCaprio, but I repeat myself).  Over the course of time the results look pretty good.  Of course, it also depends to some extent on how you define “good”, because from time to time – and over certain extended periods of time between the beginning and end – the results don’t look so good.  Allow me to explain.

In general terms, it goes like this:

Good: This method avoided most of the 1973-1974 bear market.

Not So Good: Between 1977 and 1991 there were 5 “sell” signals.  In all 5 cases an investor who “sold everything” based on these signals would have bought back in at a higher price.  An investor would have missed drawdowns of -9.6% in 1977-78 and -12.7% in 1981-82.  But all other sell signals during the great bull market of the 80’s and 90’s witnessed drawdowns of no more than -4.0%. 

Good: The last three sell signals (2000, 2002, and 2008) were followed by drawdowns of -28%, -29% and -50%, respectively.   

Figure 1 displays the results in tabular form:spx timing Figure 1 – Jay’s Trend Identification Method Signals

The key thing to note is that over the past 40+ years this method outperformed buy-and-hold (by almost 2-to-1 if interest earned while out of the market is added in; See Figure 6).

Figures 2 through 5 display the signals on SPX monthly bar charts. SPX Timing 1Figure 2 – SPX with JTIM Signals 1970-1984 (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)

SPX 2 Figure 3 – SPX with JTIM Signals 1984-1994 (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)

SPX 3 Figure 4 – SPX with JTIM Signals 1994-2004 (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)SPX 4 Figure 5 – SPX with JTIM Signals 2004-2014 (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)

Figure 6 displays the growth of $1,000 using JTIM (adding 1% of interest per year while out of the market) versus buy-and-hold since 1970.Figure 6 Figure 6 – Growth of $1,000 using JTIM (blue line) versus buy-and-hold (red line) since 1970

And just to complete the picture Figure 7 displays the growth of $1,000 invested in SPX only when the system is bearish.  Figure 7Figure 7 – Growth of $1,000 when JTIM is bearish (1970-present)

For the record, had an investor bought an held the S&P 500 only during those period when JITM was bearish since 1970, an intitial $1,000 investment would now be worth only $540 (i.e., a loss of -46%).  Or as we “professional market analysts” refer to it – Not So Good.


So is this the “be all, end all” of market timing?  Clearly not.  During most of the 80’s and 90’s, getting out of the market for any length of time typically cost you money.  Still, since nothing of the “be all, end all” variety actually exists  some investors may find it useful to note the status of this simple model, at the very least as an alert that:

a) a lot of bad news can typically be ignored if the model says the trend is “up”, and,

b) some defensive action may be wise if the  model says the trend is “down.”

Alright, excuse me, I have to get back into my Hazmat suit.

Jay Kaeppel

Light at the End of the Tunnel? (or do I hear a Train Whistle?)

Wow, does Murphy hate my guts, or what?

So I write an article all about how the stock market gets all bullish during the middle 18 months of the decade (September 30th – Mark Your Calendar) – i.e., starting at the close on September 30th of the mid-term election year – and what does Murphy go and do?  He (She? Hmmm, that might explain a few things) invokes his (her?) dreaded Law and the market gets hammered right out of the box in early October.

Fortunately for me I have made enough mistakes in the market over the years that I don’t even bother to feel stupid anymore when things go exactly the opposite of what I might have anticipated.  This leads me to invoke a maxim I adopted (after a long, painful process) a long time ago:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #412: Murphy hates you.  Plan accordingly.

To put it into other terms, it essential for any trader or investor to give some thought as to  what might go wrong before taking any particular action and to come up with an answer to the following question:

“What is my worst case scenario and what specific action will I take to mitigate the damage should this scenario unfold?”

Sounds like such an obvious question to ask and answer doesn’t it?  But here is another question that will likely make a lot of readers squirm:

“Do you have an answer to the question above?  Every time you make a trade?”

OK granted that’s two questions, but you get my drift.

Where to From Here?

So here is the part of the article where most “highly trained professional market analysts” tell you why the market is almost certain to rise (or fall) from here. Unfortunately, the bad news for me is that I am not very good at predicting the future (plus let’s face it, I can’t risk pissing Murphy off again).  So while it “feels” like the market could melt down at any moment, I have little choice but to simply follow my plan and give the bullish case the benefit of the doubt.  So two things to note:

#1. October through December in Mid-Term Election Years

In Figure 1 you can see the growth of $1,000 invested in the Dow Jones Industrials Average only during the months of October, November and December during mid-term election years, starting in 1934 (i.e., 1934, 1938, 1942, etc.)oct-dec midterm 1 Figure 1 – Growth of $1,000 invested in DJIA Oct-Nov-Dec of Mid-Term Election Year (1934-present)

Figure 2 shows the year-by-year results

oct-dec midterm 2

Figure 2 – DJIA performance Oct through Dec of Mid-Term Election Years

As you can see, this period has showed a gain 90% of the time.  Granted a few were pretty miniscule, still the median gain was in excess of 8% and the worst previous performance was -7%.

#2. Short-Term Oversold

Well I could hardly refer to myself as a highly trained professional market analyst if I didn’t have my own proprietary  overbought/oversold indicator, so, voila, surprise, surprise, my own proprietary overbought/oversold indicator (cleverly named JKOBOS) appears in Figure 3.jkobos Figure 3 – Jay’s Overbought/Oversold Indicator is flashing an oversold (i.e., theoretically bullish) signal at the moment (Chart courtesy of AIQ TradingExpert)

A close look at the chart in Figure 3 reveals that JKOBOS readings below 25 tend to highlight decent buying opportunities.  With the indicator presently standing at 21.8, this qualifies as at least a “bullish alert”.


So is the combination of a bullish seasonal trend (i.e., October through December of Mid-Term election years) and an oversold market (based on a reading from my own overbought/oversold indicator) telling us that another rally is in the near future? 

The honest answer is “not necessarily”.  The optimistic answer however, is that despite the fear and loathing that seems to permeate the market these day (or maybe partly because of it), there is a chance that the market could surprise to the upside.  As a dutiful trend follower I personally have little choice but to continue to give the bullish case the benefit of the doubt.

Just don’t anyone tell Murphy I said that………sssshhhh!

Jay Kaeppel

Sittin’ by the Stock Market Bay….

…watching the trend roll away.

Once I gain I apologize for the lack of posting activity of late.  It just seemed that there wasn’t much that needed to be said about the seeming perpetual state of affairs:

Step 1. Each day the world descends a little further into chaos

Step 2. The financial markets couldn’t care less (i.e., stocks go up, interest rates remain mostly unchanged and gold goes down)

What else do you need to know?

Despite the fact that I spend a pretty fair amount of time gazing at the world around us and shaking my head I have remained steadfastly in the bullish camp throughout 2014 – despite the fact that my “gut” said it would be a good year to “Sell in May” (Sometimes I wish gut would keep its big mouth shut) – for no other reason than the simple fact that the stock market has remained in a pretty obvious uptrend throughout.  Which reminds me of:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #129: Despite all the information that swirls around us every minute of every day, sometimes, sitting around doing nothing is a pretty good investment strategy.  Ironically, sometimes it’s also the hardest one to follow.

And now we stand on the cusp of what historically has been the most bullish time of the decade (September 30th – Mark Your Calendar).  In regards to the article in that link I recently had an “interesting” discussion on the topic.  It went something like this.  

Other person (heretofore, OP): So I see you are bullish on the stock market for the next 18 months.

Me: Really?

OP: Yeah, I saw your article where you predicted that the stock market would rally sharply during the mid decade months.

Me: Um, that wasn’t really a prediction.

OP: Well, what the hell was it then?

Me: Um, it was mostly a history lesson to alert investors to an interesting historical trend.

OP: So you don’t think it’s gonna work this time?

Me: I don’t know if it will work or not this time around.

OP: Well then what did you bring it up for?

Me: Actually, I didn’t bring it up, you did.

OP: Huh, what?  No you wrote the article – what for?

Me: I thought it was a pretty interesting and persistent historical trend.

OP: Yeah, but if you don’t think it’s gonna work this time around then what’s the point of bringing it up?

Me: I don’t know if it will work or not this time around – and I didn’t bring it up, you did.

OP: Well (frustration building – not to mention alcohol beginning to kick in), what kind of market forecaster are you anyway?

Me: I’m not a market forecaster.

OP: Sure you are, I read your stuff all the time.

Me: God bless you for that sir, but I don’t really try to predict what will happen next.

OP: So you don’t even have the courage of your convictions!?

Me: Well, there’s a very fine line between courage and stupidity…

OP: What’s that supposed to mean?

Me: Precisely.

OP: You wanna step outside pal?

Me: Um, we already are outside…..this is your back yard, remember?

OP: So you don’t know anything about the stock market AND you’re  a smart aleck.

Me: Well……

And so on and so forth.

Which leads us to:

Jay’s Trading Maxim #127b: Sometimes not thinking about and not talking about the financial markets is a pretty good thing to do. Ironically, sometimes it’s also one of the hardest things to do (especially when there is alcohol involved).

Also to:

Jay’s Life Maxim #33: When you are the only sober person in an argument, remember, time is on your side.  Be patient, wait for the inevitable unforced error, quietly declare victory and move away quickly but quietly (or, if all else fails, wait for your opponent to lose consciousness).

So even despite the recent weakness in the stock market – and what my gut tells me is an “obvious” topping formation forming (SHUT…UP!) – anyone who came into 2014 fully invested and has yet to make a trade this year is doing reasonably well (unless of course you were invested in small-cap stocks, but I digress).

For those who can’ fight the urge, sometimes a simple trend-following technique combined with a simple pullback and a simple entry trigger can work pretty well.  For example:

1. 10-day simple MA > 20-day exponential moving average and 20-day exponential moving average above 30-day exponential moving average (this is Dave Landry’s Bowtie Method which I learned from Dave Steckler at http://www.etfroundup.com/)

2. An oversold indicator becomes, well, oversold, what else?  For our purposes we will say that the 3-day RSI drops below 45.

3. The next time a daily high exceeds the previous day’s high by 0.02 points or more, then buy.

In a nutshell:

1. Trend up

2. Pullback within an uptrend

3. Short-term reversal back to the upside

Let’s assume a trader buys when the previous day’s high is exceeded by 0.02 or more following the setup described above.  For simplicity’s sake we will assume that the trade is exited when the 2-day RSI rises above 75.

In Figure 1 you see a bar chart for FB with entry signals (i.e., price taking out the previous day’s high following a proper setup) marked with green up arrows.aapl 1Figure 1 – FB in Bowtie Uptrend with an RSI pullback (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)

In Figure 2 we see exit signals (i.e., 2-day RSI >= 75) marked in red.  In some cases the entry and exit signal come on the same day. aapl 2Figure 2 – Exit signals for FB in red (Courtesy: AIQ TradingExpert)

This method is not presented as the “be all, end off” of trading.  It is simply an example of one approach for taking small bites out of a longer-term uptrend (for those of you who cannot fight the urge to “do something”).


Someday the stock market will experience another meaningful decline, interest rates will rise and gold will advance again (no, seriously) in a meaningful way.  Attempting to predict in advance when that day (or days) will come is not a valuable use of anyone’s time.  While traders can take advantage of trends by trading shorter-term – as I’ve just demonstrated – in the immortal words of Paul Newman in “Cool Hand Luke”:

“Sometimes nothing is a real cool hand.”

Jay Kaeppel

Options Related Article in October 2014 Stocks & Commodities Magazine

It’s self serving announcement time here at JayOnTheMarkets.com.  Please see my option trading related article in the October 2014 of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities (www.Traders.com).

The article is titled “Introducing the Open Collar” which details a slight twist on the “collar” strategy, which is mostly used by traders to limit the risk on a stock position for a period of time – while also limiting the upside potential.  The “Open Collar” is an attempt to alter things enough to limit risk on the downside while also retaining unlimited potential on the upside.  If you have ever considered using options to hedge a stock position or portfolio you might find this to be a useful idea (NOTE: in the interest of full disclosure, yes, my opinion is slightly biased in this case).

Jay Kaeppel

Let It Rain…a Little…For Now

Well it’s raining like crazy here in the greater Chicagoland area (which reminds me, have we usurped the title of “Murder Capitol” from Detroit yet?  I digress) and the stock market is – of all things – kind of going down of late.  Who knew that that was still possible?  Of course the truth is that we can probably use both – the rain and a “pullback” in the market, that is (the Murder Capitol thing, maybe not so much).

I have been on something of a hiatus.  Have gotten some nice comments of late from people who used to read my stuff at Optionetics and just discovered my blog.  I appreciate the kind words.  It kind of makes me wish I could think of something useful and/or intelligent to say about the markets.  Around late August I simply fell into the “stocks go up, bonds go up, gold goes down, period, end of discussion” zombie-like line of thinking, and couldn’t really find anything new to say regarding those particular trends.  Sort of a “Lack of a need to do any analysis paralysis.”

September and After

The most bullish portion of the Decade cycle – i.e., the Mid-Decade Rally – starts at the close of trading on September 30th.  Rather than regurgitate all of the relevant numbers I will simply encourage you to review this article (September 30th – Mark Your Calendar!) to get an idea of how the stock market has tended to move during the 18 months smack dab in the middle of the decade (Hint: “Up”).                 

In the meantime, a pull back in the stock market during the month of September might be “healthy” in the long run.  Of course, we can also file this idea under the category of “Be careful what you wish for.”  On a certain level it sounds logical to say “hey if the stock market experiences a nice, neat 3-5% pullback during September it may very well set the stage for the net leg up.”  Unfortunately I have on several occasions in the past seen this type of thinking turn into “hey don’t worry, this current pullback is just setting the stage for…………AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!

So like I said, probably best to take it as it comes for now….and be careful what we wish for.   I promise to start posting a little more regularly soon.

Jay Kaeppel